LIPOSOMAL PEPTIDES INCREASE HAIR DENSITY AND LENGTH

Liposomal peptides are engineered peptides reacted with lipids (fats) as a means to introduce peptides into living keratin cells. The hair fibre grows when keratin cells from the base layer of the dermis transit to the scalp.  During transit the keratin cells produces lots of keratin and keratin associated protein.  The length and density of the hair fibre is dependant on how much keratin is produced by that keratin cell.

For the short lifetime of the keratin cell (while below scalp level) there is a demand for the synthesis of large amounts of keratin protein.  The activation of keratin genes is essential in hair follicle morphogenesis to commit the keratin cell to keratin production.

Regulatory controls govern keratin gene expression and the subsequent building of keratin and keratin associated proteins.  While conditions of the cell allow, hair will continue to grow whilst keratin genes remain activated.  For keratin gene activation the cell requires hormones and growth factors.  The main growth factor required for hair growth is insulin-like growth factor and the main hormone needed is thyroid hormone (T3). Inflammation, metabolic disfunction, nutrient deficiencies and stress (cortisol) will lower levels of keratin gene activation in all keratin cells.

Keratin cells that produce only mediocre amounts of keratin will be significantly thinner than keratin cells that produce lots and lots of keratin.  Cell growth, an increase in mass and size of the cell, is a highly regulated cellular event.  Clinical trials show growing hair fibres treated with liposomal peptides increased the keratin content of cells.  Liposomal peptides are able to stimulate the production of keratin without the presence of thyroid hormone or insulin-like growth factor but may be inhibited by high levels of cortisol or other nutrient deficiencies.

PEPTIDES AND HAIR FOLLICLE BIOLOGY

A peptide is a short chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bond.  Peptides differ from proteins as there are shorter in length than a protein that contains more than 50 amino acids.  Peptides are generally considered to be a chain of two or more amino acids.  A chain that includes up to fifteen amino acids is called an oligopeptide, these include dipeptides, tripeptides, hexapeptides, pentapeptides and tetrapeptides.

In cells, peptides such as growth factors and hormones can perform biological functions and provide instructions for the cell.  To produce products such as keratin, a keratin cell will synthesise a peptide from a DNA template and this will serve as the instruction to produce keratin from the protein manufacturing machinery in the cell, the ribosome, then go on to be further modified by the Golgi apparatus.  This instruction will only be given in response to insulin-like growth factor and other growth factors.

Insulin-like growth factor is the major growth stimulator of the hair follicle.  Insulin-like growth factor is production in the liver is stimulated by growth hormone and inhibited by stress (cortisol), inflammation or nutritional deficiencies.

Liposomal peptides in the same sequence as peptides will have the same functional effect as the biological protein.  Thus, liposomal proteins identical to peptides that act as signals to instruct cell growth, can directly stimulate the increased synthesis of keratin within keratin cells without the requirement of biological growth factors.

PEPTIDES ARE SPECIFIC AND SELECTIVE

Liposomal proteins are identical copies of biological proteins making them safer and more effective than other keratin stimulating agents.  For keratin synthesis  to occur in a keratin cell, there must first be stimulation by one or more growth factors.  Liposomal peptides can pass through the fatty layer of the cell membrane, this means no growth factors are needed for increased keratin synthesis.

Liposomal peptides are copies of biological peptides, this means they can only carry out one function but they can do this as well as the biological equivalent.  Liposomal peptides are seen as safe and well-tolerated as peptides can be easily metabolised by the body.

HOW DO LIPOSOMAL PEPTIDES INCREASE HAIR DENSITY?

Keratin cells continually secrete keratin and keratin associated proteins as the migrate from the basal layer to the stratum corneum.  The mass of the keratin cell increases by a factor of 3 by the time it reaches the stratum corneum.  So a 100 pg keratin cell should grow to around 900 pg by the time it reaches scalp level.

Liposomal peptides are able to specifically and selectively stimulate keratin production within the cell increasing the size and weight of the keratin cell.  The length and density of the hair fibre is dependant on this mass increase.  When the keratin cells that make up the hair fibre grows to full potential mass, the hair fibre will be strong and grow faster due to the larger cells within the hair matrix.  When the keratin cells do not increase to full potential mass, the hair fibre will be made up of small cells that produce a finer, slower growing hair fibre due to the small cells that are part of the matrix.

THE FINAL WORD

Liposomal peptides are an exciting and drug-free alternative for increasing hair length and hair fibre thickness. Liposomal proteins are able to keep keratin cells producing keratin until they reach full potential mass resulting in the appearance of thicker and fuller hair.

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